Concrete is a robust, durable, and inexpensive primary building material used in dam spillways, core walls, control towers, stilling basins, and slope protection. Nevertheless, poor workmanship and construction materials can cause imperfections that might require concrete repair. Any damage to concrete structures due to ice, flowing water, or other forces should be corrected. Failure to carry out regular repairs and maintenance to concrete structures could result in structural failure from either a hydraulic or structural standpoint which may compromise the safe operation of the dam.
Wall or floor movement, improper alignments, extensive cracking, joint displacement, extensive undermining, and settlement signals a major structural issue. In circumstances where concrete Replacement is needed to repair damaged Concrete, you should engage a registered engineer to inspect the Concrete’s condition and establish the extent of damage to determine appropriate remedial measures.
Methods of concrete repair
Before carrying out any concrete repair, it is crucial that the factors governing the failure or deterioration of the structure are identified; This enables you to undertake suitable remedial measures in the repair plan to rectify the issue and prevent its recurrence. The techniques below need experts and experienced assistance to produce the best results.
- The Dry-Pack Method: This method can be applied to small holes with no depth than the surface diameter. The preparation of the mix consists of 2-part Portland cement and 5-parts sand mixed with water. The added water should be sufficient to produce a mortar that sticks together. After the appropriate consistency is achieved, the mortar can be packed into the holes using thin layers.
- Concrete Replacement: this method is needed when regions of a half to one square foot or larger extend through the sections of Concrete or where the damaged concrete depth is more than 6 inches. In these circumstances, you should employ the usual concrete placement techniques s. Repair is more effective when tied in with the existing reinforcing steel. This method of repair will need the assistance of an engineer with expertise in concrete construction.
- Unformed Concrete replacement:The Replacement of deteriorated or damaged sections in horizontal slabs may not need any special procedures far from the ones used inappropriate construction practices new slabs placement. Repair work is bonded to old Concrete using a bond coat prepared using an equal quantity of cement and sand.
- Aggregate Concrete preplacement: This special technique has been employed for massive repairs, especially in underwater repairs of abutments and piers. The method consists of the procedure below:
- Deteriorated concrete removal
- Removal of the sections that need repair
- Repair area prepackaging using coarse aggregate
- Pressure grouting the spaces between the coarse aggregate particles using a sand-cement or purely cement mortar.
This is among the most modern developments in concrete repair. It involves the employment of synthetic materials such as epoxy resin for patching and bonding.
Before embarking on repairing a deteriorated or damaged concrete surface, all loose and unwanted Concrete should be thoroughly removed by chipping or sawing and the patch region thoroughly cleaned.